Creating Transgender-Affirming Homeless Service Agencies and Systems for Youth

“When you center the experience of the most marginalized, you create a system that better serves all.” – Jama Shelton, Deputy Executive Director of the True Colors Fund

Forty percent of homeless youth identify as LGBTQ. This number is astonishingly high considering that the rate is only about 7% in the general youth population. Adequately serving LGBTQ homeless youth is an imperative, as is preventing them from becoming homeless in the first place. However, not all subgroups of the LGBTQ community have the same needs and face the same challenges.

I recently attended a webinar hosted by the New York Coalition for Homeless Youth on creating transgender-affirming systems for homeless youth. The webinar was presented by Jama Shelton, Deputy Executive Director of the True Colors Fund, and provided a wealth of information relevant to homeless-specific and other services.

Transgender can be used as an umbrella term that captures multiple experiences of having one’s self-identity not conform to traditional male/female gender labels (including gender-queer, gender non-conforming, and gender expansive identities). Transgender youth commonly become homeless or runaway as a result of conflict in the home, often related to their gender identity or gender expression. Transgender youth tend to be homeless longer than other youth and commonly experience: a lack of social support; significant mental and physical health problems; barriers to accessing housing and employment; and barriers to accessing gender transition supports and services.

Some key priorities for organizations looking to become more transgender affirming are to:

  • Develop inclusive policies, procedures, paperwork, and spaces, even if you have yet to serve a client that openly identifies as transgender;
  • Develop clear inclusion statements that include gender and apply to staff and clients;
  • Create programs that provide transgender clients with respite from an often unaccepting world; and
  • Think through timelines and program requirements when working with transgender clients to consider if they are appropriate.

In addition to these broad ideas, Jama discussed some of the challenges faced by transgender homeless youth, followed by suggested solutions for organizations to implement. I’ve summarized some of these below.


  • Not wanting to access services or shelter due to fear of being singled out, victimized, etc.
  • Service providers and programs that are uninformed and/or insensitive to transgender youths’ needs and experiences.
  • Staff/peers deliberately using incorrect names or pronouns.
  • Lack of access to appropriate restrooms and facilities.
  • Having to conform to dress codes that differ by gender.
  • Confidentiality concerns, such as being “outed” without consent.
  • Lack of appropriate role models.


  • Educate and train staff about the needs and experiences of transgender youth, and provide them with skills to effectively work with transgender clients, including consent and confidentiality processes.
  • Identify and familiarize staff about local community-based supports for transgender youth.
  • Include gender when thinking about organization/program staff diversity.
  • Record and use youth’s preferred name and correct pronouns.
  • Create all-gender communal bathrooms or gender-neutral single bathrooms.
  • Allow youth to dress in a way that matches their gender identity.
  • Offer gender-neutral clothing and avoid organizing clothing donations by gender.
  • Offer/identify transgender-specific support groups.

The True Colors Fund conducts community organizing, public awareness, policy advocacy, training, and research activities all aimed at the prevention and reduction of homelessness among LGBTQ youth. They also coordinate the Forty to None Network, a free online support community available to anyone who supports this mission.

Thank you to the New York Coalition for Homeless Youth for hosting this informative webinar. The Coalition is a statewide network of organizations that serve homeless and runaway youth, and this webinar is an example of the type of training providers are able to receive through their membership in the coalition. If you or your organization work with homeless or runaway youth in New York State, please consider joining the coalition.

Blog Post Author: Amanda Aykanian, Research and Project Lead at the National Center


CSU Sacramento Professor and Students Help Conduct Project on Transient Homelessness

Research Team: Antoine Watkins (MSW II), Dr. Baiocchi, Russ Read (MSW II) and Matthew Foy (sociology MA)
Research Team: Antoine Watkins (MSW II), Dr. Baiocchi, Russ Read (MSW II) and Matthew Foy (sociology MA)

Dr. Arturo Baiocchi (assistant professor of social work at California State University, Sacramento), along with graduate students Matthew Foy (sociology), Russ Reed, and Antoine Watkins (social work) are helping to conduct a community needs assessment in Sacramento’s River District. The project, a collaboration with Sacramento Steps Forward (SSF), has a focus on homeless adults who have recently traveled to Sacramento.

SSF connects individuals experiencing homelessness to a wide array of housing services and programs in the community. In January, SSF began a new street outreach and coordinated entry program—Common Centsto engage chronically homeless individuals.  Equipped with an online-assessment tool, outreach workers are able to quickly assess individuals and coordinate their entry into appropriate programs. Since its launch, the program has interfaced with over 1,200 individuals and assisted over 200 transition into a housing program. More broadly, SSF has helped house over 2,000 individuals over the last year.

Matthew Foy, sociology graduate student, conducting in-person interviews with individuals at a homeless encampment near the bus-station.
Matthew Foy, sociology graduate student, conducting in-person interviews with individuals at a homeless encampment near the bus-station.

SSF recently asked Dr. Baiocchi and his students to help facilitate an exploratory project to understand motivations and factors that bring homeless individuals to the River District and Sacramento more broadly.  Because of its proximity to bus and train stations, as well as some service providers, the River District is often perceived to be an area where homeless individuals congregate. However, little research or data exist to support this assumption. Moreover, it is unclear why some individuals experiencing housing instability travel to Sacramento, and whether many, if any, do so to access services in the city.

The project is being conducted in conjunction with SSF’s outreach efforts in the River District during November and December of 2015 and will explore the following questions:

  1. What proportion of individuals contacted by SSF in the River District have traveled to Sacramento within the last 30 days?
  2. What motivates individuals to travel to Sacramento (e.g. seeking employment, passing through, central location, access to services, etc.)?
  3. What are the perceptions that individuals have of Sacramento, with respect to available services and supports?
  4. What new types of services and supports would these individuals benefit from, and can SSF provide these benefits?

The project hopes to explore the complex realities underpinning the ‘magnet myth’ of social services; the perception that increasing access to services attracts more homeless people to an area. More broadly, the project hopes to shed light on the motives/factors that contribute to transient homelessness in Northern California, particularly with respect to housing-insecure young adults traveling by bus and the challenges they experience accessing services and supports. Insights gleaned from the project will also help SSF more effectively tailor its outreach services to address the short and long term needs of its clientele, particularly those that have recently traveled to Sacramento.

Interior of greyhound bus station through which some individuals travel to Sacramento.
Interior of greyhound bus station through which some individuals travel to Sacramento.

Dr. Baiocchi and his students are helping train SSF staff on research methodologies associated with survey design, sampling, interviewing protocols, and qualitative approaches. Students will also be helping SSF contextualize their findings with respect to the research literature on issues related to transience, homelessness, and young adults. Students will help SSF facilitate a public presentation of key findings of the project to the community in Spring of 2016.

Blog Post Author: Arturo Baiocchi, PhD, Assistant Professor of Social Work at California State University, Sacramento