Research Round-Up: The Latest in Homelessness Scholarship

This blog post features 10 recently published, peer-reviewed journal articles on homelessness – some written by faculty from our partner schools. These publications cover a range of topics related to homeless youth and adults, permanent supportive housing, homeless service provision, and service learning. Consider adding one of these to your course syllabi next semester or citing one in your next article. And, if you’re looking for additional readings to include in your classes, check out our curriculum resource page.

  1. Aparicio, E. M., Birmingham, A., Rodrigues, E. N., & Houser, C. (2019). Dual experiences of teenage parenting and homelessness among Native Hawaiian youth: A critical interpretive phenomenological analysis. Child and Family Social Work, 24(2), 330-339. Read more here.
  2. Byrne, T., Montgomery, A. E., & Fargo, J. D. (2019). Predictive modeling of housing instability and homelessness in the Veterans Health Administration. Health Services Research, 54(1), 75-85. Read more here.
  3. De Marco, A. C., & Kretzschmar, J. (2019). The impact of cocurricular community service on student learning perceptions of poverty and homelessness. Journal of Poverty, 23(1), 21-43. Read more here.
  4. Burns, V. F., & Sussman, T. (2019). Homeless for the first time in later life: Uncovering more than one pathway. Gerontologist, 59(2), 251-259. Read more here.
  5. Lee, W., & Ferguson, K. M. (2019). The role of local businesses in addressing multidimensional needs of homeless populations. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 29(3), 398-402. Read more here.
  6. Marie, D. S., Gallardo, K. R., Narendorf, S., Petering, R., Barman-Adhikari, A., Flash, C., Hsun-Ta, H., Shelton, J., Ferguson, K., & Bender, K. (2019). Implications for PeEP uptake in young adults experiencing homelessness: A mixed methods study. AIDS Education and Prevention, 31(1), 63-81. Read more here.
  7. Metzger, M. W., Bender, A., Flowers, A., Murugan, V., & Ravindranath, D. (2019). Step by step: Tenant accounts of securing and maintaining quality housing with a housing choice voucher. Journal of Community Practice, 27(1), 31-44. Read more here.
  8. Waegemakers Schiff, J., & Lane, A. M. (2019). PTSD symptoms, vicarious traumatization, and burnout in front line workers in the homeless sector. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(3), 454-462. Read more here.
  9. Travis, R., Rodwin, A. H., & Allcorn, A. (2019). Hip hop, empowerment, and clinical practice for homeless adults with severe mental illness. Social Work with Groups, 42(2), 83-100. Read more here.
  10. Gwadz, M., Freeman, R., Leonard, N. R., Kutnick, A., Silverman, E., Ritchie, A., Bolas, J., Cleland, C. M., Tabac, L., Hirsch, M., & Powlovich, J. (2019). Understanding organizations serving runaway and homeless youth: A multi-setting, multi-perspective qualitative exploration. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 36(2), 201-217. Read more here.

Making a Class Count: Incorporating the PIT Count into an MSW Research Course

Most of us who work in the field of homelessness are familiar with the point-in-time (PIT) count, which entails using volunteers to attempt a census of people experiencing homelessness within a community. These homeless counts are a federal funding requirement from the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), but they also provide valuable information and insight about the prevalence, incidence, and scope of homelessness in a community.

Beyond these explicit and pragmatic purposes, however, homeless counts are also a community engagement event. A broad spectrum of community members concerned about homelessness comes together to engage with the lived reality of homelessness in their community. While some volunteers, like service providers or advocates, may already be familiar with these realities, for many other volunteers, participating in the count is one of the few experiences they will have conversing and engaging with individuals experiencing homelessness. Indeed, some research suggests that participating in a homeless count, and the resulting direct contact volunteers have with individuals on the street, can dispel and mitigate some of the common misconceptions and stigma toward people experiencing homelessness or housing instability. And so, as educators and researchers concerned about the growing distrust and lack of empathy toward people experiencing homelessness, we feel there is great potential to leverage the homeless count as an opportunity for the broader community, including students, to learn about and engage with homelessness.

Balancing Our Roles as Researchers and Educators

During the last couple of years, we have become increasingly involved in the homeless count in our community of Sacramento, California. In 2017, we worked with our community partners to improve the methodology of how the count is conducted— for example, helping design a more rigorous sampling and survey method to increase the reliability of the count. And in 2018, we continued this work to introduce various innovations to improve the accuracy of the 2019 count, from using mobile apps to conduct surveys to improving sampling strategies.

One of the innovations we are most proud of this year has been incorporating our Sacramento State students in the implementation of the homeless count. This past January, over 200 of the 900 volunteers deployed were students. To give a little context, in 2017, only 230 volunteers participated in the Sacramento homeless count, which had been typical for Sacramento since PIT counts began in the region. As such, this year was by far the largest homeless count that Sacramento has ever had—reflecting the sad reality of growing homelessness in our community (and California more broadly), as well as greater engagement from the community, stakeholders, and our university. From our lens that the PIT count is also a community engagement event, the larger turn-out of volunteers and increased community engagement this year represents in some respects a point of success and progress.

Recruiting More Volunteers and Our Students

One of the key points we advocated for this year was the need to seek a broad spectrum of volunteers to participate in the count and to do strategic outreach targeting volunteers who have social service backgrounds (e.g., direct-service providers, social workers, nurses, etc.). We emphasized the importance of having specific volunteers designated as team leads who could leverage their social services experience and expertise to ensure the count was conducted with respect, cultural humility, and professionalism. We encouraged the organizers to recruit and establish teams of volunteers with a variety of experiences and perspectives, with team leads who would use their expertise to help guide the team during the night of the count. We also argued that the team lead should be the key point person to initiate conversations with individuals on the street and to conduct the formal in-person surveys, which are used to estimate the demographic composition of the homeless population in Sacramento. We believed having experienced team leads, and providing them additional training on engagement and interviewing techniques, would increase the response rate of the survey and ensure that conversations were initiated appropriately. We also encouraged organizers to recruit volunteers from our social work program, as well as the broader university.

Incorporating the PIT Count into a Research Course

In our department, students can engage in research through a capstone course. To encourage student involvement in the count, we created a year-long capstone course centered on homelessness and the homeless count. In the spring of 2018, we announced this new capstone course. Traditionally, the capstone course resembles a structured thesis, where students work closely with faculty to develop and implement empirical research throughout their last year of the MSW program. For the 2018-2019 academic year, we pitched two capstone course opportunities—one on quantitative research and one on qualitative research. Students would spend the first semester doing literature reviews about an aspect of homelessness and learning about survey techniques and engagement strategies used in the homeless count. The second semester would entail participating in the count itself, as well as analyzing previously collected data to inform students’ respective empirical projects. The goal was to engage students in a capstone research project that directly reflects and impacts the community.

Approximately 60 graduate students expressed interest in the first semester capstone course. Due to class size constraints, we enrolled 40 students in two course sections. In collaboration with our Community Engagement Center, we also set up the homeless count as a service-learning activity open to all students and used funding from the National Homelessness Social Work Initiative to hold informational sessions to spark student and faculty interest in the count. One of these was a panel on myths about homelessness.

Student Perspectives Regarding the Experience

As the video above highlights, our students played an integral role on the night of the homeless count. Many of them expressed that they gained a deeper understanding of community-based research and a greater understanding of homelessness through this experience. We asked students what participating in the count meant for them. Below are some of their responses.

Student #1

I had never heard of the PIT project until my capstone. Initially, the thought of being sent out at night to the streets of Sacramento County to count homeless scared me. I was concerned about safety. Coming to volunteer, I was also fearful about conducting interviews just because I did not know how people were going to respond and because of my own bias. I was also a little nervous about going out with people I did not know to a place I was unfamiliar with. While we only counted five individuals in our route, and in the end were unable to do a single interview, I still enjoyed participating in the PIT. The experience gave me a new perspective and awareness of the homelessness issue here in Sacramento and how there are many people without a shelter suffering different adversities and in need of help. I can see that there is a need for services and support to help decrease homelessness. Finally, it was surprising to me seeing all these different people coming out to volunteer and give their time to go out to count and interview homeless people. It was nice to see how the community supported this event. I am looking forward to knowing the results of the count and seeing what services will be created or provided (if any) to support the homeless population.

Student #2

My understanding of community-based research was expanded through participation in training, volunteer registration, the count itself, and independent processing time with fellow MSW student volunteers. From the experience, I gained a critical, yet small, understanding of what is needed to implement such a project in a region like Sacramento. Key factors include organization, adaptable leaders, and volunteers who demonstrate respect for the integrity of the project and the value of the findings. Additionally, access to reliable and user-friendly technology appeared to contribute to the ease of data collection.

Student #3

To read about homelessness is one thing, but to hear the stories of those experiencing homelessness is quite another. With all my training as a graduate student of social work, my own lived experience with homelessness as a child, and a son of a mother suffering from severe and persistent mental illness, I should be free from all judgement and bias. But even burgeoning professionals in the field, and seasoned experts alike, are not free from the cultural context that surrounds them. We’re inundated by messages from the media and national discourses that attribute the causes of homelessness to a lack of morality or a desire to avail oneself to the resources that we, as the domiciled population, believe exist in plenty. But my interaction while interviewing individuals and families during the count challenged these internal biases. Maybe it is true that contact reduces stigma.

Given student feedback about how volunteering for the PIT count impacted their understanding of the realities of research and the experience of homelessness, we hope to consider additional opportunities for students to engage in practical, action-based homelessness research in our community. Further, as we consider the successes and lessons learned from our experience of building student community research experiences into our curriculum, we invite others who have engaged students in PIT counts to share their experience with us.

Blog Post Authors: Arturo Baiocchi, PhD and Susanna Curry, PhD – both Assistant Professors of Social Work at Sacramento State 

The Future of Homelessness

The Y-Foundation (Finland) recently published a series of essays from experts on homelessness, social policy, and poverty from around the world. The series, Homelessness in 2030, tackles ideas, hopes, and fears for the future of homelessness. The essays are brief, easy to read, and present a variety of perspectives on policy and practice, as well as case studies of specific countries. Capture

We highlight a couple essays below to illustrate the people and perspectives featured in the series:

Julien Damon’s “No One is Homeless. What is Missing” explores the often-unrecognized economic, social, and political functions of homelessness and how future homeless-free cities may or may not adjust for their absence.

Dennis Culhane’s “A Professional Service for Housing Stabilization” contemplates the emergence of a new sector for social work practice, what he calls The Housing Stabilization Service, which provides a range of services related to homelessness prevention and rehousing.

Suzanne Fitzpatrick’s “Great Britain in 2030” argues that the data, analytic abilities, and statistical models needed to make accurate predictions about homelessness exist and should be used to explore the future of homelessness under a range of possible policy scenarios.

Volker Busch-Geertsema’s “Germany in 2030: Utopia or Dystopia” considers two extremes for the future of homelessness in Germany – a positive vision where homelessness is rare, brief, and non-recurrent and a negative vision where an economic depression causes increased housing insecurity and homelessness and a domino-effect of poor policy decisions.

Mary Shinn’s “A Tale of Three Futures” imagines three futures: one in which no major policy or political shift occurs and homelessness goes unsolved and ignored; one in which wealthy countries apply what’s been learned from previous efforts and other countries to increase housing affordability, bolster incomes, and quickly house those sleeping rough; and one in which visible and invisible homelessness are equally targeted by housing and policy interventions.

You can download a pdf of all of the essays here:

The 2018 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress

With the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development closed as a result of the current government shutdown, the effects for people experiencing homelessness and people living in government subsidized housing have been far reaching. Communities across the country rely on funds from HUD to provide crucial outreach, emergency shelter, housing, case management, and support services to people experiencing or at risk of homelessness. The impacts of these efforts can sometimes be hard to see or quantify.

Last month, HUD released the first part of the 2018 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. For those unfamiliar with this report, it’s an annual summary of point-in-time and housing inventory counts conducted during the previous January. It includes national, state, and continuum of care (CoC)-level estimates of homelessness, with specific breakdowns for chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth, as a well as information abocaptureut housing units.

Nearly 553,000 people were homeless on a single night in January of 2018. This number is a very slight (.3%) increase from 2017, and this is the second year in a row that an increase has been observed. Much like the 2% increase between 2016 and 2017, this year’s change was the result of an increase in people living unsheltered in cities across the country. Approximately 35% of people were living unsheltered, such as on the street, in abandoned buildings, or in other places not meant for human habitation. The states with the highest rates of unsheltered people experiencing homelessness were California, Oregon, Nevada, Hawaii, and Washington. The number of people experiencing chronic homelessness also increased slightly between 2017 and 2018.

Of the roughly 553,000 people experiencing homelessness captured in last year’s point-in-time counts, more than 36,000 were unaccompanied youth (individuals under the age of 25). Compared to the overall homeless population and compared to homeless single adults, unaccompanied homeless youth were more likely to be living unsheltered – just over half (51%) of youth were unsheltered. States with the highest rates of homeless youth were Nevada, California, Hawaii, Washington, and Oregon. In general, CoCs are new to the process of conducting point-in-time counts of unaccompanied homeless youth, which can require innovative approaches to ensure estimates are as accurate as possible. The Voices of Youth Count project offers some guidance for youth count methods and has published a series of briefs from their own study of the prevalence and characteristics of homeless youth across the country.

Overall, homelessness has declined by more than 84,000 people since 2010, a 13% reduction. In fact, family homelessness has declined by 23% since 2007, chronic homelessness has declined by 26% since 2017, and veteran homelessness has declined by 48% since 2009. States that have seen the largest decreases in homelessness between 2007 and 2018 are Florida, Texas, Georgia, California, and New Jersey.

While the increase in the number of people experiencing homelessness over the past two years is relatively small, it’s worth paying attention to as an indicator of what may be a gradual reversal of the positive trends of the last decade. Perhaps it is a clarion call to the federal government and local jurisdictions to take action to prevent larger upticks in years to come. Further, the fact that the increase continues to be entirely driven by more individuals experiencing unsheltered homelessness in cities, rather than being evenly spread across groups and homeless experiences, suggests there are distinct place-based factors at play in urban areas, including a widespread lack of affordable housing and inadequate emergency shelter in urban areas. More than 50% of unsheltered people were living in CoCs that encompass the nation’s 50 largest cities. The states that saw the largest increases in homelessness between 2017 and 2018 were Massachusetts, New York, Texas, Washington, and Arizona.

While the point-in-time count data upon which the AHAR is based likely under-counts the actual number of people experiencing homelessness, the report is a useful tool for framing homelessness at the national, state, and local levels. It’s a valuable resource for community agencies, researchers, and academics for writing grant applications, advocating for funding or programmatic changes, and providing background for research and evaluation write-ups.

Communities across the country are conducting their overall and youth counts this month, with the help of a range of community partners and volunteers. The data from these counts will be the basis for the 2019 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress.

Blog Post Author: Amanda Aykanian, MA, Research and Project Lead at the National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services



Supportive Housing Works (for most). Don’t Throw the Baby Out with the Bathwater

This post was written by Dr. Emmy Tiderington, Assistant Professor of Social Work at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. 

The State of New York’s rush to move mentally ill adult home residents into independent, supportive housing, as detailed in the December 6th New York Times article, “’I Want to Live Like a Human Being’: Where N.Y. Fails Its Mentally Ill”, was in many ways a horrific failure. But, this does not mean that the supportive housing model endangers people and that we should throw the proverbial “baby out with the bathwater”. Supportive housing isn’t to blame—the service system is to blame.

Having worked with people with severe mental illness for years in a New York City supportive housing program and in other community settings, I have seen individuals like those described in this article who struggle to live independently in these settings. But I’ve had many more recipients of these services tell me that this combination of housing and supports saved their lives. Decades of research have shown that supportive housing works for the vast majority of recipients. Housing stability in these programs is high, upwards of 93% in a recent federal demonstration project and far higher when compared with “care as usual” in homeless services. The model is considered a best practice by the federal government and has been employed effectively to end homelessness in many cities across the nation .

There is a small percentage of people who do not succeed in supportive housing and need a higher level of care, as these studies also show. But the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1999 Olmstead v. L.C. decision, which precipitated New York’s and other states’ efforts to move people out of institutional facilities, mandates that communities ensure that people with disabilities are given the chance to live in the “most integrated, least restrictive setting possible” and there is an ethical imperative to give people this opportunity.

States should have taken a lesson from the failures of deinstitutionalization, the period from the 1950s onward during which patients from state psychiatric hospitals were discharged en masse to an inadequate array of community-based services. The poor implementation of this public policy is one of the major contributing factors to the modern era of homelessness, when thousands of people with severe mental illness fell through the cracks and visible street homelessness reemerged as a major social problem in the United States. Deinstitutionalization offers a cautionary tale, whether its 1950 or 2018. Without adequate resources in place, systems cannot keep people safe.

To avoid the tragedies described in the NY Times, New York should have ensured an appropriate array of services existed in the community before transitioning people out of adult homes. While the type of supportive housing used in the adult home transition may not have worked for some, other forms of supportive housing with greater capacity for supervision could have been used to meet the needs of this group. Unlike the scatter-site apartments used in the transition, which scattered people in independent apartments throughout the community, congregate supportive housing buildings with on-site social services are physically set up to allow for more supervision. With robust funding for high-intensity services in this type of setting, people could get the supervision and services they need while living in their own apartment in the community.

For those who cannot make it in any form of community-based housing, available alternatives are necessary. Finding a psychiatric inpatient bed for individuals who meet the legal threshold of being “a danger to themselves or others” in some communities, like New York City, can be extremely challenging. A 2016 Pew report found that the United States is 123,300 psychiatric hospital beds short of what is needed. When there are no beds available, a person is often stuck in a revolving door from a supportive housing apartment to a 48-hour hold in a psychiatric emergency room and then straight back into supporting housing.

To keep people safe in the community and in the “least restrictive, most integrated setting possible”, we need a robust safety net of accessible, appropriate resources. While the adult home transition failed many, and tragically so for some, it did go well for most and should not be a reflection on the quality of care offered by supportive housing. Instead, this failure should shed light on the still inadequate and underfunded social service system for people with severe mental illness. We should use this week’s revelations to illuminate places for improvement rather than blaming a housing approach that has vastly improved the lives of many decades after the injustices of deinstitutionalization.


Emmy Tiderington, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. She previously worked as a social work supervisor at a New York City-based supportive housing program.

Syracuse University SSW Hosts Legislative Policy Symposium on Homelessness

Addressing “The Many Faces of Homelessness in New York State” was the focus of the Syracuse University School of Social Work’s 20th Annual James L. Stone Legislative Policy Symposium held Friday, October 26, 2018, at the Onondaga County Legislative Chambers in Syracuse, New York.

As a central feature of our Bachelor of Science in Social Work (BSSW) and Master of Social Work (MSW) curricula, this event is designed to reinforce the importance of, and commitment to, policy practice as a professional responsibility. Each year students and faculty take a day to explore the roles that social workers, advocates, legislators, community leaders, and service providers play as issues affecting vulnerable populations emerge onto the public agenda, move through legislative processes, and as policy and programmatic interventions are implemented. The goal is to further strengthen the commitment of social work students to participate, as professionals and citizens, in advancing the ideas and values of the profession through policy practice. These symposia have been made possible by the generosity of James L. Stone, a distinguished alumnus (MSW ’64) and former Commissioner of the New York State Office of Mental Health. IMG_7131

Dr. Robert L. Okin (pictured right)  recipient of the American Psychiatric Association’s Human Rights Award and author of Silent Voices: People with Mental Disorders on the Streetkeynoted the conference, noting that “when you see homelessness up close and personal, it’s clear that it represents a severe moral problem for society as well as an absolute humanitarian crisis.”

Notwithstanding that “19,000 more people became homeless than stopped being homeless last year,” Andrew Hevesi, New York State Assembly Member and Chair of its Social Services Committee (pictured below with Amanda Aykanian, Research and Project Lead at NCEHS), warned that “the state has been walking away from its responsibility.” Relative to the expenses incurred by counties, New York State is paying a smaller portion of the cost of housing and related services for people who are homeless than it had in the past. Other presenters highlighted how they harness their own homelessness advocacy skills, with and on behalf of persons who are homeless, to educate the public and expand services. Still others, while also discussing how much remains to be done, shared their knowledge of innovative efforts to address homelessness in central New York, including providing “street corner” health interventions, constructing tiny home communities, forming coalitions, and implementing social services.

We invite you to take a look at the following videos of the presentations made over the course of the day. They are available for classroom and other professional usage.

Conference participants learned about the problems facing New Yorkers who are homeless  89,500, according to a point-in-time survey, including 526 in Onondaga County. When “doubling-up” with relatives or friends is counted, frighteningly, the Syracuse School district reported that one-in-ten students, 2,464, were homeless in 2016 a number only exceeded by the New York City school district. We were reminded that the experience of being homeless falls disproportionately on persons with physical and behavioral disabilities, communities of color, LGBTQ youth, people who are impoverished, and children and women, including families experiencing domestic violence. And, many of our presenters discussed the harsh reality of how homeless populations are often marginalized and unseen. They are sometimes criminalized, often experience a loss of personhood, and subject to routine violations of “civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, …especially the rights to housing and freedom from non-discrimination and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment” (National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty).

IMG_7183This year’s symposium was well-timed to the Council on Social Work Education’s growing interest in integrating homelessness into social work curricula. We were fortunate to have the advice and presence of Amanda Aykanian (pictured left, with Assembly Member Hevesi), a Ph.D. candidate at the University at Albany (SUNY) School of Social Welfare and Research and Project Lead at the National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services. She and her colleagues are working to strengthen social work education to better address homelessness and to expand field placements for students in homeless settings. According to Ms. Aykanian, it is important that social workers continue to advocate for change at all levels.IMG_7283

The importance of this work to the social work profession, and more importantly to people who are homeless, was driven home by Al-amin Muhammad (pictured right), founder of We Rise Above the Streets Recovery Outreach, a Syracuse organization recognized for its “Sandwich Saturdays.” He regularly engages large numbers of volunteers on Saturdays in directly engaging and providing food to people who are homeless. Here’s what one interaction with a social worker meant to him when he experienced homelessness:

“I was about to commit suicide until a social worker walked up to me. He remembered me when I signed up for the detox center and told me my name was at the top of the list. He’d been looking for me. This social worker saved my life.”

Later in his journey, he says, “I finally told myself I was somebody. All my life people told me I would never amount to anything, and I believed that, until the social worker told me that I was somebody.”

We are a profession that respects the resiliency and strength described above. Our profession’s work embraces the tradition of respecting the worth of humankind.

Syracuse University School of Social Work is pleased to be a part of the National Center’s New York/New Jersey Regional Network. We have many excellent field placements that connect to homeless services. We are currently infusing more content on homelessness into our course offerings. We will continue to maintain a focus on empowerment and ethical adherence associated with homeless populations.

The slide show below features additional pictures of presenters, students, and other attendees.

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Blog Post Authors:

Eric R. Kingson, Ph.D., Professor, Syracuse University School of Social Work, Falk College

Keith A. Alford, Ph.D., M.S.W., Director and Associate Professor, Syracuse University School of Social Work, Falk College

Alexandra Leigh Kerr, M.S.W. Student, Graduate Assistant, and Coordinator of 2018 Legislative Policy Day Symposium, Syracuse University School of Social Work, Falk College

Evaluating the Evidence: Permanent Supportive Housing and Health Outcomes

The faculty at the University of Southern California Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, one of the National Center’s regional hub schools, continue to make significant contributions to the field of homelessness research. In September, the Homelessness Policy Research Institute at USC held a research symposium on the impact of permanent supportive housing on health outcomes for people experiencing chronic homelessness. The symposium’s program was built around a recent report from the National Academy of Sciences, which was co-authored by Dr. Suzanne Wenzel, a professor of social work at USC. Dr. Wenzel presented findings and implications from the report at the research symposium. The key takeaways include the following:

  • PSH is effective in keeping people stably and safely housed and has great potential for reducing the number of people experiencing chronic homelessness and improving their health outcomes;
  • Existing data is too limited to demonstrate definitively that PSH contributes to improved health outcomes; and
  • There is a need for more well-designed, high quality research studies to more clearly define the impact of PSH on health outcomes.

You can view highlights of the symposium below or watch a recording of the entire event here.