REALSYT Collaborative Works to End Youth Homelessness

“The best work happens in collaboration, not  in a vacuum.” The origin of this quote is unknown, but it’s more than likely somewhere outside of academia. Researchers and academics, for better or worse, can often feel isolated, covertly competitive, and disconnected. This has contributed to disconnected community-based researchers that are reliant on small samples collected in single localities, limiting the ability to draw connections to a broader experience. In 2016, in spite of these traditional approaches, seven researchers came together in collaboration to overcome inherent challenges in the world of research. All with the shared goal of ending youth homelessness.

The Research, Education, and Advocacy Co-Lab for Youth Stability and Thriving, or REALYST, is a national collaborative of academic and community partners that uses research to inform innovative policies, programs, and services aimed at ending homelessness and housing instability among young people. REALYST members are interdisciplinary, representing a variety of fields and research areas. Some members focus on sexual health, while others examine social media use and opportunities for innovative service outreach. The co-lab holds monthly meetings where members can seek consultation from colleagues and use feedback to build their programs of research. REALYST researchers co-author peer-reviewed papers, using data from the Homeless Youth Risk and Resilience Survey (HYRRS), which to date has surveyed 1,426 young persons experiencing homelessness and housing instability across seven cities. Initial publications include an exploration of sexual health knowledge and access to HIV-prevention medication, service experiences of LGBTQ individuals, and prescription drug misuse. Learn more about the HYRRS here.

REALYST is committed to overcoming another common research challenge – making findings accessible to support service providers and policy makers invested in making evidence-informed decisions. Relationships between researchers and practitioners are integral to REALYST’s approach to advocacy and change. Community agencies assist with the collection of data, and researchers are committed to sharing findings with their community partners. A team of REALYST graduate students works to disseminate findings from recent publications via briefs, blog posts, and social media in order to inform policy makers and service providers, change public perception, and educate young people facing housing instability. In doing so, REALYST contributes to the Grand Challenge of Ending Homelessness by intentionally bridging the gap between research and practice to prevent and eliminate youth and young adult homelessness.

Together, researchers, practitioners, and advocacy groups discuss the data and its implications, brainstorming new approaches to service delivery and new research questions.

Interested in learning more or partnering with REALYST? Contact them here.

The REALYST team includes researchers and graduate students from multiple partners of the National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services. This post was written by Jonah DeChants and Robin Petering.

JonahJonah DeChants is a doctoral candidate at the University of Denver’s Graduate School of Social Work (GSSW). He uses community-based research methods to study the experiences of youth and young adults experiencing homelessness, particularly those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ).

 

robinRobin Petering, PhD is interested in improving the lives of young people who experience homelessness through community-inclusive research, policy advocacy, and program implementation. Her research agenda includes reducing violence through innovative intervention approaches.

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Catholic University Students Explore Youth Homelessness in D.C.

According to the 2016 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress, 9% of the U.S. homeless population (or ~50,000 individuals) is between the ages of 18 and 24. Most of these young people, nearly 32,000, were counted as ‘unaccompanied youth.’ This term encompasses young adults living on the streets or in unstable housing without the presence of a family. A recent homeless count in Washington, D.C. identified 211 unaccompanied youth between the ages of 18 and 24.

To understand the experiences of young adults experiencing homelessness in Washington, D.C., Pathways to Housing teamed up with the Catholic University of America’s National Catholic School of Social Service (NCSSS) to conduct a qualitative research study. Under the guidance of Dr. Linda Plitt Donaldson, graduate social work students within the NCSSS hit the streets to interview these young adults as part of a fall semester class on homelessness in the U.S.  Semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the precipitating factors and current experiences of the youths’ homelessness, as well as to learn about the specific services that might support young adults in getting into stable housing.

Pathways outreach workers trained students in identifying and approaching young adults in locations around the city.  The team interviewed 57 young adults between the ages of 18 and 30, with a mean age of 22.  Of these 57 young adults, 27 reported that this was their first time experiencing homelessness.  Most reported that they stay and sleep on the streets overnight while others sleep at shelters, in the homes of family and friends, or in abandoned houses.  At the time of the interviews, the young adults reported having been homeless between four days and 15 years, with an average length of time in homelessness of approximately three years.

During the interviews, the young adults detailed situations that precipitated their current experiences of homelessness.  Many of these accounts included significant trauma and victimization, such as ongoing physical or sexual abuse. Others found themselves on the streets due to poor re-entry planning as they transitioned from foster care or jail.  Still, others reported having left their last housing situation of their own will – feeling as though they were a burden to family or due to overcrowding in the home.  Overwhelmingly, most reported that their most recent experience of homelessness resulted from being “kicked out” of their home by a family member.  For some of the youth, this resulted from “not getting along with” another member of the household.  For others, this followed rape or other forms of abuse perpetuated by a family member or a family member’s significant other.

CUABlogPostPic1The young adults shared the range of coping strategies they use to survive on the streets of D.C.  Many reported relying on friends and family for resources, such as occasional meals, showers, or a place to stay.  Others were honest about activities they engage in to “just to get by”, such as stealing or selling drugs.  However, amid their challenges and uncertain circumstances, many spoke of their strides to set goals for themselves and a drive to maintain hope for the future.

When asked about the single most important thing that would help them overcome homelessness, the young adults overwhelmingly advocated for the availability of more affordable housing.  This aligns with a recent statement made by Michael Ferrell, the executive director of the Coalition for the Homeless, in an article by the New York Times detailing challenges associated with housing D.C.’s homeless population.  Ferrell stated that the difficulty is not the increase of homeless individuals as much as it is a lack of affordable housing in D.C.

In advocating for the self-professed needs of D.C.’s unaccompanied youth experiencing homelessness, the NCSSS team offers the following recommendations:

  • increase the availability of affordable housing and supports to access housing;
  • increase opportunities for employment and education;
  • increase the availability of trauma-informed mental health and social supports;
  • increase service assistance to obtain vital documentation, such as birth certificates and identification cards;
  • increase the number of drop-in centers; and
  • increase implementation of Critical Time Intervention (CTI) to prevent homelessness for young adults exiting foster care, incarceration, or other institutions.

A final recommendation includes increasing efforts to support families to prevent youth homelessness.  Forty out of 57 (70%) of the young adults participating in this study talked specifically about challenging family environments that precipitated their most recent experience of homelessness. Respondents were often kicked out of their homes or left on their own due to crowded or toxic family environments. For other respondents, homelessness resulted after the death of a family member, causing the loss of their home. Still others aged out of foster care. Families need help to address root
causes of homelessness, such as the lack of
affordable housing, the lack of living wage
jobs with benefits, relationship conflict, and substance abuse.  Programs are needed to foster community engagement and support for these families within the neighborhoods in which they live.

When the young adults were asked what the city could do to assist in getting people off the streets, they requested that service providers step up their game in helping to navigate the housing process and be willing to “take a chance” on them. The participants offered their own words of advice with regard to ending homelessness among young adults in Washington, D.C.:

“Don’t give up…sometimes I give up on myself.”

“Focus on hands up, not hands out. Help people develop skills.”

“Take a chance on people. I just want someone to take a chance on me. Not everybody is trying to get one over on the system.”

11952697_855986404905_5378313742419667396_oBlog Post Author: Bonnie L. McIntyre, PhD student within the Catholic University of America National Catholic School of Social Services (pictured right) 

The National Center Supports Youth Homelessness Symposium

Note: This post was guest authored by Jenna Mellor, Associate Director of Point Source Youth.

Point Source Youth is thrilled that the National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services (the National Center) is a presenting sponsor of the upcoming Second Annual Symposium on Solutions to End Youth Homelessness. This nationwide convening of leaders addressing youth homelessness—from providers to youth, policy experts to researchers—is co-sponsored by New York University’s Silver School of Social Work (a partner of the National Center) and the McSilver Institute of Poverty, Policy, and Research, and will be held at New York University’s Kimmel Center on April 30th and May 1st, 2018.

The participation of the National Center is especially critical because social workers are at the forefront of supporting individuals experiencing homelessness. Social workers are well-positioned to demand the systems change needed to re-imagine the cycle of displacement for youth experiencing homelessness – a cycle perpetuated by traditional shelter models. Excellence includes embodying what we know are best practices in the field: Housing First, positive youth development, trauma-informed care, anti-racism and equity practices, and ensuring that youth are meaningful collaborators in the solutions that impact them most.

Leaders in social work practice, research, and education were instrumental to the success of last year’s symposium and in planning exciting, new content for this year. We are excited to have presenters from three of the National Center’s partner schools – NYU, the University of Southern California (USC), and Hunter College. Drs. Deborah Padgett (NYU) and Ben Henwood (USC), national co-leaders of the Academy for Social Work and Social Welfare’s Grand Challenge to End Homelessness, will both be presenting. Dr. Padgett is on our  planning committee and will lead an interactive breakout session on innovative research. Dr. Henwood (USC) will present on his work at the intersections of health, technology, and youth homelessness. Dr. Jama Shelton (Hunter College) also serves on the planning committee, and is partnering with planning committee member and youth advocate Sophie-Rose Cadle to plan a breakout session on centering the leadership and self-defined priorities of trans and gender expansive youth experiencing homelessness. Continuing Education Credits will be provided by NYU.

Other presenters include Drs. Eric Rice and Robin Petering (both of USC) and Dr. Matthew Morton (Chapin Hall). Dr. Morton will present on the monumental data released by the Voices of Youth Count project, which shows the scope of youth homelessness nationally and the disproportionate experiences of youth of color, queer youth, and parenting youth. The findings were recently released in their Missed Opportunities report and have motivated many of us to do more and do better. For more information about Missed Opportunities and its implications for social work, check out the National Center’s recent blog post on the topic.

Dr. Padgett eloquently describes the need for the symposium and why social workers seeking excellence should consider attending:

“Youth homelessness in the United States has reached record levels, yet not enough is known about ‘what works.’ DebP With a robust evidence base and human rights values,Housing First has shown that relying on institutional care and shelters diverts scarce funding and support away from effective long-term solutions. To advance the national discourse on helping homeless youth in the Housing First era, this symposium features promising approaches, including rapid re-housing, host homes, and family strengthening.  Attendees will not only learn about best practices and policies but will be asked to join in solving the problem of youth homelessness through effective and passionate advocacy.”

Planning committee member and youth advocate Marcelle LaBrecque, pictured below, (who is, not coincidentally, the dynamic co-host of Point Source Youth’s webinar series Ask A Rockstar!) seconds the value of attending the symposium: “You will leave changed, regardless of if you come for the information, the food, or the people,” he said. Learning about the interventions and hearing the advocacy of a wide range of young people and adult allies will change you and your approach to ending youth homelessness.” 

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We look forward to seeing new and familiar faces at this year’s symposium. And, for those of you interested in learning more about the National Center, Amanda Aykanian, the National Center’s Research and Project Lead, will be attending both days.

Blog Post Author: Jenna Mellor (pictured left), Associate Director at Point Source Youth, is a harm reduction advocate with nine years of experience at the intersection of direct service and program development. Her work is rooted in the principles of bodily autonomy and human dignity, and she is passionate about Point Source Youth’s goal of building the evidence base for Housing First practices in youth housing.

UAlbany Supports Statewide Coalition for Homeless Youth

In November, the University at Albany’s School of Social Welfare co-hosted the New York Coalition for Homeless Youth’s (CHY) Annual Conference for the fourth year in a row. CHY is a statewide membership network of providers who serve runaway and homeless youth and young adults across New York. This partnership aligns with UAlbany’s goals for the National Homelessness Social Work Initiative and its role as part of the New York-New Jersey Regional Network.

Amanda Aykanian, doctoral candidate and Research and Project Lead for the National Center, works closely with CHY’s executive director, Jamie Powlovich, to plan the event. Cara Duffy, the school’s administrative assistant, supports this effort by managing space, food, and parking logistics.

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This year’s conference took place over two days, with the first day at UAlbany and the second at the First Unitarian Universalist Society of Albany. Along with the many CHY member attendees, there were several young people in attendance – most who are members of New York City’s homeless youth advisory council (pictured left, with Jamie Powlovich on the far right). Young people had active roles throughout the event. You can hear the powerful opening remarks from Ja’asriel Bishop here.

The conference theme was, “Resilience and Resistance: Empowering Youth and Improving the Systems that Serve Them”. Workshops and roundtables addressed a wide range of topics, including the following:

  • federal policy updates and strategic recommendations
  • meeting the legal needs of homeless youth
  • Housing First best practices
  • human trafficking
  • outreach strategies
  • working with transgender and non-binary youth
  • using administrative data to measure housing trajectories
  • rural services resources and challenges
  • statewide policy planning

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Amanda presented findings from a study she recently conducted in the Capital Region on service and policy considerations when working with homeless youth. This study was  published in Children and Youth Services Review. She also led a roundtable on using youth leadership to end youth homelessness (pictured right).

The event closed with the presentations of the 2017 Margot Hirsch Moxie Award (pictured below), which was given to Michael Berg, executive director of Family of Woodstock.

55ae6fa5-d59e-4d6e-8f27-ad448575914bFor more information on CHY, check out their website and Facebook page.

For more information on youth homelessness, read our recent post about the Voices of Youth Count project.

Blog Post Author: Amanda Aykanian, MA, Research and Project Lead, National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services

 

Learning from Missed Opportunities

Voices of Youth Count (VoYC) is a national initiative led by Chapin Hall that aims to understand youth homelessness in terms of its scope, scale, and diversity of experiences. The project makes use of a robust set of data collection efforts, including a national phone survey of more than 26,000 households about occurrences of youth homelessness, 150 follow-up interviews with individuals indicating occurrences of youth homelessness, and 215 in-depth interviews with youth who had experienced homelessness. Additional details about the project and methods can be found here.

On November 15th, Chapin Hall released a set of initial findings in the report, Missed Opportunities: Youth Homelessness in AmericaDetails about key initial findings have been published in a full-length brief, a one-page summary, and a peer reviewed article.

The big takeaways are that…

Youth Homelessness is Broad and Hidden: Approximately 1 in 30 youth (ages 13 to 17)  and 1 in 10 young adults (ages 18 to 25) experience homelessness in a year. And, many young people remain outside of traditional approaches to counts or estimates because they rely on couch surfing and other forms of doubling-up.

Youth Homelessness Experiences are Diverse: Some youth experience single episodes of homelessness while others have episodic experiences. Youth are likely to make use of a range of shelter strategies, including street, emergency shelter, and couch surfing options. And, like with adult homelessness, substance use and mental health challenges further complicate the homeless experience.

Capture2Prevention and Early Intervention are Essential: About half of the youth surveyed had experienced homelessness for the first time that year, often associated with chronic housing instability, family conflict or trauma, and upstream system involvement.

Homelessness Affects Rural and Urban Youth Similarly: The percent of youth reporting any homelessness in rural and urban counties was similar, 9.2% and 9.6%, respectively. However, the visibility and experience of youth homelessness in rural counties can differ due to being spread across larger areas and a lack of services.

Some Youth Experience a Greater Risk of Homelessness: Compared to their peers, the following groups had particularly elevated risks of homelessness – youth with less than a high school education (346% higher risk), unmarried parenting youth (200% higher risk), youth with an annual household income of less than $24,000 (162% higher risk), LGBTQ youth (120% higher risk), Black/African American youth (83% higher risk), and Hispanic youth (33% higher risk).

Implications for Social Work

The VoYC data provide homeless service providers, researchers, and policy advocates with a new and powerful tool for communicating prevalence rates and service needs. National estimates confirm what those of us in the field already knew and support the legitimacy of the work we do. These initial findings also have some important implications for social work as we continue our work towards meeting the Grand Challenge to End Homelessness.

First, in terms of preventing homelessness, we are likely missing a lot of opportunities to intervene through upstream systems that commonly employ social workers, such as schools, foster care and group homes, juvenile and adult criminal justice systems, family and child protective services, etc. While the initial VoYC findings do not illustrate causal relationships or pathways to homelessness, they do suggest opportunities for prevention and early intervention. One approach may be to further explore the use of Critical Time Intervention to prevent homelessness among youth transitioning out of foster care or institutional settings. Strengthening partnerships between schools and the homeless service system may also help prevent and end episodes of homelessness as well as increase retention and success in school.

Second, we need to take seriously the implications of multi-system involvement for youth. Improving outcomes across systems (e.g., high school graduation rates, arrest and recidivism rates) will likely have positive effects on homelessness risk. At the same time, there are always opportunities for systems to better collaborate. Social workers can play a key role in relationship building across systems and across sectors, such as through convening interagency councils and advocating for policy solutions that address root causes rather than symptoms. For example, social workers can help prevent the criminalization of homelessness.Capture3

Third, communities would benefit from institutionalizing comprehensive needs assessments and responses to youth homelessness that are flexible and adaptable to meet the diverse and developmental needs of youth. While it’s important to acknowledge that it’s not a one-size-fits-all situation, we also need a better understanding of what works and for whom. Social workers can help design, test, and evaluate strategies, such as robust outreach efforts, mobile services, cross-system collaboration, customized supportive and transitional housing options, and unique engagement approaches that make use of social networks and other technology to reach youth not accessing traditional services.

Fourth, targeted efforts are needed to effectively reduce the disparities in homelessness across groups of young people. Effective practices may include using screening and assessment procedures across systems and settings to increase service engagement. The VoYC findings confirm what we already knew about the high risk of homelessness for LGBT youth and youth of color. The even higher risk among under-educated youth and parenting youth presents broad cross-sector implications. Further, we know that extreme risk exists where these experiences intersect. Providers may want to examine program and service use data to assess opportunities to better engage high risk groups and improve service capacity through trainings that address topics such as racial justice, gender-responsive services, and eliminating service barriers for transgender youth.

Finally, the rural county findings challenge previous assumptions that youth homelessness in rural communities, while already understood to be more hidden, is less prevalent than in urban communities. While the risk of homelessness for youth in rural counties is comparable to that of youth in urban communities, the geographic and infrastructure differences between rural and urban communities warrants tailoring prevention and intervention strategies. Future work delving into rural homeless service provision is also warranted. We know less about the rural youth homelessness experience and therefore have some work to do in this area to develop and further refine responses. For example, the lack of robust services may produce more geographic mobility out of and through rural areas, which can challenge traditional engagement strategies and necessitate system-level change. However, services for homeless youth are limited and hard to navigate even in small cities, so it remains to be seen how best to strengthen systems across communities.

The Missed Opportunities report is the first in a series of reports to be generated by VoYC. In terms of deeper-dive questions, it will be interesting to see the following explored to support the design of effective prevention and intervention approaches:

  1. What is the rate of trauma and other adverse experiences among youth experiencing homelessness? And, how does trauma correlate with health outcomes and risk behaviors?
  2. What kinds of risk behaviors are prevalent among homeless youth (e.g., intravenous drug use, high risk sex practices, violence), and do these risks affect youth equally?
  3. What percent of youth are victims of drug, labor, or sex trafficking?
  4. How common is geographic mobility (e.g., intercity moves) while homeless, and how does this differ across communities?
  5. What are common pathways to homelessness for youth? Where would prevention efforts be best targeted?
  6. To what extent are homeless youth engaged in mainstream and homeless-specific services?
  7. What strengths, capabilities, and resiliencies can we draw on when working with youth and engaging them in peer support and leadership positions?
  8. How connected are youth to positive sources of social support and social networks?

For more on Missed Opportunities: Youth Homelessness in America, check out the following resources:

Blog Post Author: Amanda Aykanian, MA, Research and Project Lead, National Center for Excellence in Homeless Services

What Does Your “Perfect Life” Look Like?

I am fortunate to be a co-Investigator on the Homeless Risk and Resiliency Survey, which is a multi-city assessment of the behaviors and experiences of homeless and unstably housed youth. This past summer myself and my team collected qualitative interviews with a subset of the youth participants in Los Angeles. One of the questions we asked seemed overtly simple for a research question. We asked everyone: “If you woke up tomorrow and your life was exactly the way you wanted it to be, what would it look like?” The answers we got were endearing, funny, honest, and inspiring. Some really pulled on the heartstrings, but as a whole, the answers provided an honest picture of the hopes and dreams of youth experiencing homelessness or housing instability.

In writing this piece, I asked myself the same question. If I woke up tomorrow and my life was exactly the way I wanted it, I would be living on the West Coast in my own home, I would be surrounded, supported, challenged and inspired by family and friends, I would be working towards a career that makes me happy and gives me purpose, and myself and the one’s I love would be healthy. Over the course of my life, I’ve been asked and have answered this question many times. Each time, my answer changes. The more times I articulate my answer to this question, the closer my answer gets to my reality. With each contemplation, I get a new opportunity to reflect on my core values and identify what are the most important things I want in my life. Homeless and unstably housed youth deserve these opportunities as well. I feel that sometimes as service providers and researchers we can get caught up in the minutia. So keep asking the simple questions and ask them over and over again.

Below is my favorite quote from the interviews:

“I would be in a queen size bed firm but soft, my bills would be paid off, my storage unit that I have would be paid off for like five years, I would have my associates degree and would be working on my masters no bachelors in law or criminal justice anything crime wise, um yeah that’s pretty much it. And I would still be advocating for the underdogs somehow. But all that if I just woke up tomorrow and all that happened it would feel great but it would be hollow. ‘Cause no effort was put into filling it up and making it solid. I wished it but the outer shell is there. The process is that makes it sweeter. I want to fill it up that shell with the blood sweat and tears of me getting there. It would be lovely if that just happened and kind of I wished it did. I would get over the hollow feeling but pretty much yes. I have to work for it because I feel like it will be snatched away if I don’t.”

Scroll down to see more quotes from the youth interviewed, and you can download a pdf of them here.

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Note: The Homeless Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (HYRRS) investigators include Anamika Barman Adhikari, Kimberly Bender, Hsun-ta Hsu, Kristen Ferguson, Sarah Narendorf, Diane Santa Maria and Jama Shelton.

robinAbout the Author: Robin P. Petering, MSW is a PhD candidate in the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work. Her research interests center on understanding the social determinants of risk behaviors among vulnerable youth. She is a co-Primary Investigator on a multi-city study assessing the health risks and resiliency of homeless and unstable housed young people. She also recently received an NIH fellowship to support her research on gang-involved homeless youth.

Homeless Youth Research at Saint Mary’s College: A Pilot Study That Became A National Study

The Social Work Program at Saint Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana, is involved in researching issues of homelessness, with a focus on youth homelessness. The Social Work Program is collaborating with Youth Services Bureau of St. Joseph County (South Bend, IN) to find the best practices in providing services to homeless youth. This research collaboration involves Dr. Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz (Saint Mary’s College), Meredith Mersits and Kelly Crooks (Saint Mary’s Social Work Program alumnae), Liza Felix (Saint Mary’s Social Work student), and Lauren Kominkiewicz, MSW (Saint Mary’s BSW alum). Dr. Kominkiewicz and Lauren Kominkiewicz also conducted previous research on homeless youth, which they presented in Cologne, Germany.

Youth Service Bureau of St. Joseph County approached Dr. Kominkiewicz in 2014 with the concern that it was particularly difficult to locate homeless youth; therefore, making it difficult to conduct homeless youth counts, needs assessment, and meet the needs of homeless youth. It is well documented that homeless youth experience many issues related to housing insecurity.

A pilot study was initiated that shed light on the issue of youth homelessness in the South Bend area through qualitative research with local agency practitioners working with homeless youth. A quantitative and qualitative study is now being conducted on a national basis. Research methods involve telephone interviews and online surveys with representatives of organizations working with homeless youth. This research project quickly became a much larger project as many individuals across the United States heard about it and asked to be interviewed; a snowball sample was therefore utilized.

The purposes of the study were to:

  1. Increase knowledge of locating, interviewing, and emerging intervention needs with homeless youth.
  2. Develop a homeless youth social work assessment model to intervene with homeless youth based on the research data collected in this study. 
  3. Develop a working definition for homeless youth that will assist agencies and organizations in applying for funding resources to locate, interview, and intervene with homeless youth.

The study was designed to identify best practices for locating and intervening with homeless youth, including interviewing homeless youth, in order to assess and meet their needs. This research will increase knowledge about the methods and techniques used nationally in locating homeless youth through youth counts and other processes, including homeless youth interview questions that are integral to learning about the needs of homeless youth. A homeless youth assessment model, based on the data gathered, is under development.

The results of this study will be most useful to social work researchers, policy makers, and agencies and organizations in the discussion and continued development of best practices for locating, interviewing, and providing resources to homeless youth. The project has major ramifications in assisting organizations in finding the most beneficial practices for working with homeless youth. Additionally, developing a uniform definition of youth homelessness would be helpful for policy and service development and when applying for funding.

Blog Post Author: Frances Bernard Kominkiewicz, Ph.D., Professor of Social Work, Chair, Department of Social Work and Gerontology, and Director, Social Work Program, at Saint Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana.

Like this post?
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